June 26, 2022

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You Should Know These Things About Mexico

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Mexico City is the Federal District, capital of Mexico and seat of the federal powers of the Union, of which it constitutes one of its 32 states. Being the richest and most populated city in the country, the area within the Federal District comprises just over eight million inhabitants in 2010.

Main tourist attractions Main

auditoriums and theaters:

1.) The National Auditorium

2.) The Palace of Fine Arts

3.) The Poly forum Siqueiros Cultural

4.) The City

Theater

1.) The Metropolitan Theater 

2.) The Insurgent Theater

3.) The Foro Sol

There are also several smaller experimental theaters and auditoriums, which are used by theater students and schools; such as the Teatro el Granero, located behind the National Auditorium, where there are other theaters with a smaller capacity for spectators.

Mexico City is the fourth city with the highest number of theaters.

Neighborhoods and neighborhoods of tourist attraction

The Historic Center of Mexico City

The Condesa neighborhood (home to numerous visual artists, film and television artists, and a good number of restaurants and bars)

The Roma neighborhood is one of the oldest neighborhoods in the city. In it you can find old-style houses and a large number of parks and squares. It was one of the most affected neighborhoods in the 1985 earthquake, so many of the original constructions in the area were replaced by buildings or houses with more contemporary styles.

The Polanco neighborhood has a Californian colonial style; it was founded in the 1920s.

Coyoacán is one of the cultural districts of the greatest attraction for both national and foreign tourism; In this area, with purely colonial characteristics, Hernán Cortés had one of his houses; It is home to many of the most important museums in the city; Fernández Leal street is said to be one of the most expensive in terms of acquiring a home [appointment required]; Frida Kahlo, Diego Rivera, León Trotsky, and Gulati Rojo, among others, also had their homes. Visit Coyoacan to explore the rich cultural heritage of this city. Book your flight with Get Human On Airlines and avail your best flight deals.

San Ángel (also a colonial neighborhood, south of the city, very close to the University City of UNAM)

The historic center of Tlalpan (colonial neighborhood, currently with the presentation of numerous cultural events both in its museums and in its squares)

La Villa de Guadalupe is the main religious neighborhood. There, on December 12, the main festivities of the anniversary of the Virgin of Guadalupe are held, perhaps one of the Catholic symbols of greatest religious fervor in the country.

The Zona Rosa, a neighborhood formerly dedicated above all to art and culture, nowadays focuses its activities on commerce and, above all, is home to many clubs (bars) and bars for young people and a meeting point for the LGBT community.

The Tacubaya neighborhood (also one of the oldest, to the west of the city; in it are the National Cartography Museum and the Casa de la Bola Museum, the latter located in the Lira Park)

History Of Mexico

Pre-Columbian period

The oldest indications of human occupation in the territory of the Federal District come from the Woman of the Rock and San Bartolo Atepehuacán (Gustavo A. Madero) and correspond to the Lower Cenolithic period (9500-7000 BC). During the first three millennia before our era, under the influence or in the shadow of the Olmec culture, several important populations like Cuicuilco developed here. Towards the end of the Preclassic, the Cuicuilcan hegemony yielded to the heyday of Teotihuacan, located northeast of Lake Texcoco. During the Classic this city was a nucleus that concentrated most of the inhabitants of the lake basin, leaving Azcapotzalco as one of its satellites on the west bank, occupied by peoples of Otomian descent. In the east of the lake,

Towards the 8th century, the decline of Teotihuacan began. Some of its inhabitants moved to the shore of Lake Texcoco, where they founded towns such as Culhuacán, Coyoacán, and Copilco. The area was the destination of the migrations of the Teochichimecas during the VIII and XIII centuries, peoples that would originate the Toltec and Mexica cultures. The latter arrived in the fourteenth century to settle first on the shore of the lake, and then on the islet of Mexico, where they founded their capital. Together with the allies of the Triple Alliance, the Mexicas dominated territory of about 300 thousand square kilometers. Tenochtitlan’s flowering was interrupted due to the Spanish conquest.

Spanish Conquest

The Spanish arrived in the territory that is currently the Federal District through Itztapalapan, in July 1519. They continued on their way along the Itztapalapan road to the Tenochca capital where Hernán Cortés was received by Moctezuma Xocoyotzin on November 8, 1519. In 1520, Pedro de Alvarado (in the absence of Cortés) attacked the Mexica in the Matanza de Tóxcatl.

During the conquest, Hernán Cortés had Malinche as a translator, who was the one who helps him in communication with the Aztecs. Several legends have been created about this character.

In place of Moctezuma — killed by the Spanish — Cuitláhuac was elected tlatoani from Tenochtitlan. Leading the resistance against the Spanish occupation, he defeated the invaders and their indigenous allies on June 30, 1520. At that time, a disastrous smallpox epidemic also took place, which took thousands of lives, including that of Cuitláhuac himself. Cuauhtémoc was chosen as a substitute for Cuitláhuac. He had to face the siege of the Spanish allies with the indigenous people of the Puebla-Tlaxcala valley. Cuauhtémoc surrendered, after multiple defeats of the Mexicas and Tlatelolcas, on August 13, 1521. Book your flight with delta airlines reservations and go one step ahead for this historical city.

Viceroyalty

Since the city of Tenochtitlan had been left in a pitiful state, Cortés decided to establish the Spanish government in the town of Coyoacán, south of Lake Texcoco. From there he ruled with the title of Captain-General and Chief Justice. From Coyoacán the conquest expeditions departed with the purpose of subduing the indigenous peoples of the various directions of what would be the kingdom of New Spain. In 1528 the First Audience of Mexico was established, headed by Nuño de Guzmán. Shield granted to Mexico City by the Spanish Crown in 1524.

Mexico City was divided into neighborhoods (which settled on the territorial structures of the Calpullitin Mexicas). The lands around the lake were divided into encomiendas, which were later transformed into town halls. The Indian towns were originally located on the banks of the Spanish cities, although with the passage of time the limits were less and less clear.  At the same time that various political institutions were founded in the new Spanish domains, a process of acculturation of the natives also took place. There was an intense campaign of Latinization of the Indians, led first by the Franciscans, who established institutions such as the Colegio de la Santa Cruz de Tlatelolco. In them,

During the colonial period, Mexico City was filled with sumptuous buildings, either for religious worship, such as buildings for the administration, or residences for the Creole and peninsular elite. In contrast, most of the indigenous population lived in squalor in the periphery neighborhoods and riverside or mountain towns. While the city center was the object of constant beautification (such as the remodeling of the Zócalo, or the paving of the streets, at the expense of the old canals); on the shores, people lived in bahareque houses set on bogs.

The viceregal city was the victim of several floods (1555, 1580, 1607, 1629, 1707, 1714, 1806), a result of the destruction of the levees that protected it during the siege of Tenochtitlan, of which the greatest was that of 1629. This fact and the inability of the Spanish rulers to administer the lake city led to the unfortunate decision to dry up the Valley of Mexico basin, through the construction of a drainage channel and a pit, to drain the waters by the river. Tula.

The special importance of this opera is that it is the first one composed in North America and the first opera composed on the continent by an American. This opera begins the fertile and still little studied history of Mexican operatic creation, uninterrupted since then for three hundred years.

Independence

After the French occupation in Spain, the Mexico City Council declared itself sympathetic to the creation of a sovereign Junta to govern New Spain for the duration of the occupation. The most radical members, such as Francisco Primo de Verdad and Melchor de Talamantes, thought that independence should be final. The Junta de México had the support of the viceroy José de Iturrigaray. However, a reactionary movement imprisoned the members of the city council on September 15, 1808, and succeeded in removing the viceroy.

After the start of the independence revolution in Dolores, Guanajuato, the objective of the insurgent troops was to capture the capital. Their paths led them to the vicinity of Mexico City. Hidalgo and his army arrived in Cuajimalpa shortly after proclaiming independence at Dolores. They defeated the royalists in the battle of Monte de las Cruces, and despite this, the insurgents decided to return to Bajío without taking the capital.

From then on, the Valley of Mexico was no longer a military objective of the independentists and had become the stronghold of the royalist army. Towards 1820, when the popular revolution was almost extinguished, Mexico City was the seat of new movements against the viceregal government. This time, the conspirators were the same who had achieved the dismissal of Iturrigaray, who after the approval of the Cádiz Constitution saw their privileges threatened. Among them was Agustín de Iturbide, who sealed a pact (Plan de Iguala) with Vicente Guerrero (head of the revolution in southern Mexico) and then forced Juan O’Donojú to sign the Córdoba Treaties that declare the independence of Mexico. The Trigarante Army triumphantly entered Mexico City on September 27, 1821,

XIX century

After independence, Mexico City was the capital of the state of the same name. On November 18, 1824, Congress decided to create a federal district, an entity that would house federal powers. The territory of the Federal District was made up of Mexico City and six other municipalities: Tacuba, Tacubaya, Azcapotzalco, and Mixcoac. February 20, 1837.

During the 19th century, the Federal District was the central stage of all the country’s political disputes. It was also the target of one of the two French invasions of Mexico (1861-1867) and occupied for one year by US troops in the framework of the American War of Intervention (1847-1848).

Towards the end of the 19th century, the government of Mexico decided to carry out numerous urban works that, although they had Mexico City as their focus, would end up affecting the entire territory of the Federal District. Among them is the construction of the Grand Drainage Canal, which started around 1878 and finished in 1910. This work put the lakes that covered much of the capital’s territory almost on the verge of extinction. Steamboats were introduced for transportation through the valley canals, and trams for ground transportation.

Little is said about culture in this century, which had among its most notable characters José María Velasco Gómez, naturalist, and landscape artist from the Valley of Mexico. At this time, musical genres such as son and syrup became popular in the capital. And in the field of literature, works such as El piquillo Sarmiento, by José Joaquín Fernández de Lizardi, were written.

In operatic production, the opera Guatemotzín by Aniceto Ortega is the first conscious attempt to incorporate native elements into the formal characteristics of the opera. Within the nineteenth-century Mexican opera production, the opera Agorante, King of the Nubia by Miguel Meneses, premiered during the festivities commemorating the birthday of Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico, the operas Pirro de Aragón by Leonardo Canales, Keofar by Felipe Villanueva, and, above all, the operatic production of Melesio Morales, the most important Mexican composer of operas of the 19th century, whose works were very successful among the public in Mexico City and which, even, were released in Europe.